Here are reported a series of scientific articles concerning the load-bearing construction systems with ICF formworks.
These publications are prepared by university researchers from very different construction cultures (India, Canada, France, Arabia, Romania, etc) and that deal with disparate and very specific subjects.
It was considered appropriate to publish all the contributions, to give an idea of ​​the state of the worldwide scientific art of the matter.
From reading, it is clear that they all agree on the “advantages” from the use of the ICF system, both from the structural-seismic point of view, and from the energetic profile

1) Compressive strength of insulated concrete form blocks (India, 2014)

E.Arunraj, G.Hemalatha – Karunyauniversity, Coimbatore
A.Arun Solomon – Ranganathan engineering college, Coimbatore

ABSTRACT: Insulating concrete forms wall system of building construction is an emerging technique to address the issue of shortage of building materials and faster construction. This technique has numerous advantages over traditional brick wall and RCC construction. It provides energy saving, needs no special form works, faster construction, sound proof, less maintenance, disaster resistance etc. This paper presents experimental and analytical results carried out to study the behavior of ICF blocks. Expanded polystyrene sheets of thickness 100mm, 75mm and 50mm were used for the study. Two pieces of such material was interconnected by 8 mm steel rods. In this cavity M25 grade concrete was poured. The size of model was 200 x 150 x 60 mm. The blocks were subjected to compression load and its behavior and strength were studied. Result shows that after the concrete crushed the EPS sheets hold the concrete from falling and the ductility was increased.

2) Inspection of properties of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), Compressive behaviour, bond and analytical examination of Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) blocks using different densities of EPS (India, 2017)

ABSTRACT: Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) is an emerging construction technology using the interlocking of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) sheet with poured in place concrete. Expanded Polystyrene has many advantages like lighter in weight, good thermal insulation,…
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ABSTRACT: Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) is an emerging construction technology using the interlocking of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) sheet with poured in place concrete. Expanded Polystyrene has many advantages like lighter in weight, good thermal insulation, moisture resistant, durable, acoustic absorption, low thermal conductivity, etc., In this study, the properties of EPS were determined by the standard procedure as per IS 4671:1984, compression behavior of ICF and bondage between EPS and concrete were analyzed using ICF specimens casted using M25 grade concrete.
Two types of ICF specimens were casted with corrugated EPS and Plain EPS and using different densities of 4,8,12 kg/m3and varying thickness of 50 mm and 100 mm EPS. The results show that the compressive strength of ICF blocks casted with plain EPS was higher than the samples casted with corrugated EPS as well as results show that good bondage exist between EPS and concrete for plain and corrugated EPS without adding any bonding agent while casting and when compared to plain concrete all the ICF blocks exhibit tremendous ductile nature of failure.

3) Thermal Analysis of Insulated Concrete Form Walls (Canada-Francia, 2015)

Navid Ekrami, Ryerson University – Toronto (Canada)
Anais Garat – Institut Catholique des Arts et Métiers, Lille
Alan S.Fung – Ryerson University, Toronto

ABSTRACT: A three dimensional numerical model of a PVC water pipe embedded inside an insulated concrete form wall was numerically developed. Different wall thickness sizes and optimal distance between pipes were analyzed. Three inlet temperature and four inlet velocity for each set have been studied. Thermal behavior of the concrete was investigated in a transient mode. This study focused on storing thermal energy inside the wall and using it when there is a demand rather than transferring heat for space conditioning. Predicted heat transfer rate and potential thermal energy storage were tabulated. In general, this study helps designers to gain detail understanding of heat transmission between water pipe and concrete.

4) Assesment of ICF energy saving potential in whole building performance simulation tools (UK, 2015)

Eirini Mantesi, Christina J. Hopfe, Jacqueline Glass, Malcolm Cook – Loughborough University, Leicestershire

ABSTRACT: Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) is classified among the site-based Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) and consists of hollow insulation blocks and cast in-situ concrete. ICF construction elements can achieve very low U-values and high levels of air-tightness. The aim of the study was to examine the inconsistency in the simulation results provided by five widely used Building Performance Simulation (BPS) tools when calculating the energy consumption and the thermal performance of ICF. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the energy consumption of ICF when compared to low and high thermal mass construction methods. The results indicate that there is a divergence in the BPS predictions, which is more noticeable in the annual and peak heating demand. Moreover, simulation predictions indicate that the ICF building has the potential to reduce the annual and peak energy use significantly, when compared to a lightweight structure, but consumes slightly increased energy compared to a high mass building

5) Applications of active hollow core slabs and Insulated Concrete Foam Walls as thermal storage in cold climate residential buildings (Canada-Francia, 2015)

Navid Ekrami, Raghad S. Kamel – Ryerson University, Toronto Anais Garat – Institut Catholique des Arts et Métiers, Lille

ABSTRACT: A test facility is designed and is under construction to experimentally verify the effect of thermal energy storage systems in overall performance of a coupled Building Integrated PhotoVoltaic / Thermal (BIPV/T) and Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP). This study shows how the loads for the test facility were adjusted by a regular size single family residential building. Moreover, the article explains different unique options of storing thermal energy in the test facility using the thermal mass of the building itself. Numerical models of Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) wall and Ventilated Concrete Slab (VCS) were developed using SolidWorks software’ Flow Simulation module and ANSYS Fluent software.

6) Assessment on the usage of Insulated Concrete Forms in United Arab Emirates construction industry (Emirati arabi uniti, 2016)

Syed W. Ather, Saud AbdelAziz, Ibrahim A. Salloum, Sameh M. El-Sayegh – American University of Sharjah, Sharjah

ABSTRACT: Recently, the UAE government endorsed the design and implementation of green buildings to increase energy efficiency. This means that construction fraternity would need to move from the conventional construction, i.e. Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU), towards sustainable methods such as Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF). However, the cost is an issue when it comes to green buildings. Therefore, this paper looks into a green construction method, i.e. insulated concrete form, and determines problems faced by construction industry for its implementation with the help of a survey. It was found out that changes in codes and regulations are necessary to integrate and encourage the use of insulated concrete formwork. Moreover, results also depict that less proportion of people had previous experiences with insulated concrete forms. Regardless, all respondents have strongly agreed that the increase in publicity of insulated concrete formwork, and encouraging the use of green materials in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) are essential to convince construction society to adopt such methods. Future research can be done on the Life Cycle Cost Analysis of an insulated concrete formed villa to determine the overall cost. This will include factors such as initial cost, maintenance cost, and salvage value.

7) Research contributions to the seismic performance of ICF Technology Wall Systems (Romania, 2010)

Andreea-Terezia Mircea – Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca
Ruxandra Crutescu – Faculty of Architecture, Bucharest

ABSTRACT: Being a very easy to install system, increasing job site efficiency and worker productivity which saves time and money, Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) tilt-up wall systems ensure a more sustainable construction with superior energy efficiency, low material costs, and versatility for the built environment. A research was carried out in order to asses an ICF tilt-up wall system with regard to the requirements of the actual earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete wall systems and reinforced concrete wall equivalent dual systems. After a preliminary analysis of the constructive provisions, a comprehensive structural analysis program was performed in order to identify the best practices in implementing the system on the market. As variables were considered the design ground acceleration (0.08g, 0.20g and 0.32g), the normalized axial force (0.05, 0.20 and 0.40), the quality of concrete (classes C 16/20 and C 20/25), the effective thickness of the walls (i.e., 150 mm and 200 mm), the longitudinal reinforcing ratio at the ends of the wall (0.005, 0.020 and 0.040) and the type of primary shear wall (i.e., high ductility and medium ductility respectively). The full compliance with the European structural design frame can be reached by two detailing strategies, related to the severity of the actions specific to each site and solution. The results are presented in a synthetic manner, which enables an easy comprehension of the conclusions drawn from the processing of the numerical data.

8) Feasibility of using insulated concrete forms in hot and humid climate (Oman-India, 2014)

Selvapandian, K.P. Ramachandran – Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat
Dr. Neeraja, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu

ABSTRACT: Insulated concrete forms are used widely in cold climates to control heat loss from inside to outside from the living areas of the building. Even though, oil is the major source of power generation in Middle East Countries, there is huge potential to use electrical energy more efficiently in buildings by applying thermal insulation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the hygric behavior of a building with ICF construction and a building with normal concrete construction in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Hygrothermal performances of the walls were studied on these buildings during the peak summer months of July, August and September 2013. The result indicates that the performances of insulated concrete forms are comparatively better than the normal concrete block walls.

9) Energy use in residential housing, a comparison of insulating concrete form and wood frame walls (USA, 2000)

ohn Gajda, Martha VanGeem – Construction Technology Laboratories Inc, Skokie

ABSTRACT: A typical 228-square-meter (2,450-square-foot) house with a contemporary design was
modeled for energy consumption in five locations. Locations were selected to represent a range of climates across the United States. Energy simulation software utilizing the DOE 2.1E calculation engine was used to perform the modeling.
In each location, three variations of the house were modeled. The first variation utilized conventional wood framed exterior walls constructed with typical materials. The second variation utilized insulating concrete form (ICF) walls. The third variation had non-mass exterior walls that met minimum energy code requirements. For all variations, all other assemblies such as the roof, floors, windows, and interior partitions were identical. In all locations, the house variations were insulated to meet the minimum levels required in the 1998 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).
Due to the inherent insulating properties of the ICFs, total energy use (including heating and cooling, cooking, laundry, and other occupant energy) for houses with ICF walls ranged from 8% to 19% below that of the houses with walls that met IECC requirements. Houses with wood frame walls constructed with standard materials also showed total energy saving over that of houses with walls that met IECC requirements. In all locations, houses with ICF walls had total energy requirements that ranged from 5% to 9% below those of houses with wood frame walls.
Houses with ICF walls also showed additional savings resulting from a reduction in the required heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) system capacity. Total system capacity for houses with ICF walls ranged from 16% to 30% less than that of houses with walls meeting IECC requirements and 14% to 21% less than that of houses with wood frame walls.

10) Monitored Thermal Performance of ICF Walls in MURBs (Canada, 2007) Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

ABSTRACT: Insulating concrete forms (ICF) are generally stackable, hollow, polystyrene blocks into which concrete is poured to form walls in residential and commercial buildings.
ICF walls have many advantages, including ease of construction, high thermal resistance, thermal mass and airtight construction. These attributes should lead to lower heating and cooling energy consumption, increased comfort and reduced space-conditioning systems capacity requirements.
While ICF building systems have been available for many years, builders, owners and developers need quantitative performance monitoring data and analysis to better understand the energy-related performance of ICF. CMHC, in partnership with the Ready Mixed Concrete Association of Ontario (RMCAO) and the Jamesway Construction Group, initiated a research project to measure the thermal performance and air leakage characteristics of an apartment building constructed using an ICF system.

11) Job-Built Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF) for Building Construction (USA, 2011)

Afshin Hatami, George Morcous – University of Nebraska Lincoln, Omaha

ICFs have become the most preferred construction material for green buildings due to their reduced construction time, compatibility with any inside or outside surface finish, insect resistance, strength, noise reduction, reduced infiltration, and significant and continuing energy savings. However, the high initial cost of commercial ICFs, their limitations on concrete placement height and rate as serious concerns. In this paper, a new ICF system has been developed to address these concerns. The new system is a job-built system that consists of high density expanded polystyrene boards (EPS) and threaded glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) ties. A full-scale specimen was built using self-consolidation concrete (SCC) and tested at the structural laboratory. This experiment has shown the ease and speed of construction of the new system as well as its superior structural capacity and energy efficiency while being economically comparable.

12) Field Energy Performance of an Insulating Concrete Form Wall (Canada, 2012)

W. Maref, M. M. Armstrong, H. Saber, M. Rousseau, G. Ganapathy – National Research Council Canada, Ottawa

ABSTRACT: Field monitoring of the dynamic heat transmission characteristics through Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) wall assemblies was undertaken in 2009-10 at National Research Council Canada?s Institute for Research in Construction?s (NRC-IRC) Field Exposure of Walls Facility (FEWF). The scope of work included the design of the experiments, the installation of test specimens, the commissioning of the instrumentation, the operation of the test facility, the monitoring, data collection & analysis. This research evaluated the dynamic heat transmission characteristics through an ICF wall assembly in FEWF for a one year cycle of exposure to outdoor natural weathering conditions. The monitored data confirmed that the concrete adds very little to the overall R-value of the wall assembly under steady-state conditions. During the transient conditions, the data showed that the concrete played a significant role in tempering heat loss to the exterior. The thermal mass of the concrete was shown to reduce the peak heat flux through the assembly during cold weather. This research is one of a series of projects that highlight direct and indirect impacts of thermal performance of the building Envelope technologies in houses. This paper provides valuable experimental data to be used for energy simulation models. This research is on-going. Future work including the cooling season performance and simulation results will be presented in later publications

13) Recycled Foam and Cement Composites in Insulating Concrete Forms (USA, 2002)

Dr. Richard Boser, Mr. Tory Ragsdale, Charles Duvel – Illinois State University, Illinois

ABSTRACT: The benefits of insulating concrete forms (ICF) as an alternative to traditional concrete wallsand above grade wood frame construction are discussed. ICF systems include recycled materials and cement composites to meet specific construction challanges to provide a environment friendly product. The advantages of insulating concrete forma (ICF) included improved sound attenuation, resistance to the structure and damage from the flying debris. It was found that the recycled and composite materials in insulating (ICF) had shortcomings of virgin foam for insect infestation and supported the goal for sustainibility in building materials.

14) Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF) As Blast-Resistant Barriers (USA, 2012)

R.F.Oleck, A.C.Habel, D.W.Herrit – McLaren Engineering Group, Orlando

ABSTRACT: Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF) have been used as residential and commercial building wall systems and in more recent years as floor and roof systems. The ICF consists of a reinforced concrete core formed between 2 panels of EPS (Expanded PolyStyrene foam) which acts as both permanent forms for the concrete core and the permanent insulation for the building. Typically only the concrete core with appropriate steel reinforcing is assumed to be the structural component of the building. Most of the ICF providers have load tables for resisting compression plus lateral pressure due to wind or seismic loads based on the thickness of the core and the amount and spacing of the steel reinforcement. Many building codes including the International Building Code (2009) include these materials in the chapters relating to concrete. FEMA 361 lists ICF as one of the materials to be used as a hurricane and tornado generated missile protection barrier with required core thicknesses depending on wind speed. This paper examines the possibility of the EPS foam panels contributing to the composite action of the ICF system to resist explosive blast loads. Both wind-generated missile impact tests and explosive blast tests have been conducted on ICF. The presence of the EPS outer form, which is usually about 2.5″ thick, acts as a shock-absorbing cushion for both missile impact and the compression shock wave from an explosive blast. The plastic form ties that attach the inner EPS panel to the outer EPS panel restrains the hydro-static pressure of the uncured, wet concrete. These plastic ties and the inner EPS foam panel may also restrain any concrete fragments from penetrating into the interior of the building. This paper will summarize the results of these tests and present analytical evidence of the usefulness of not only the concrete core of the ICF, but also the EPS foam panels, as a blastresistant barrier.

15) Comparative life cycle assessment of insulating concrete forms with traditional residential wall sections (USA)

Neethi Rajagopalan, Amy E.Landis, Melissa M.Bilec – University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh

ABSTRACT: Sustainable building materials offer energy efficiency and environmental performance. One possible sustainable building product is insulating concrete forms (ICF). An ICF wall section consists of expanded polystyrene and concrete with polyethylene ties. One difference between a “normal” construction and ICF construction is that the forms stay in place after concrete has cured. The forms and concrete act as insulation material and have the potential for reducing energy consumption in buildings. The goal of this research is to conduct a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of the wall sections comprised of ICF and traditional wood-framed for the life cycle phases of raw materials, manufacturing, construction, use and end of life. Preliminary results comparing ICF and wood frame in the manufacturing phase for above grade construction are presented. To investigate the use phase, an energy modeling tool eQuest will be utilized, along with discussing the development of the LCA residential model.

16) Seismic evaluation of a green building structural system: ICF grid walls (USA, 2009)

Peter Dusicka, Thomas Kay – Portland State University, Portland

ABSTRACT: The demand for green buildings construction is growing from commercial multi-story buildings to condominiums and single family houses. One of the emerging structural systems that addresses sustainability from the structural and construction point of view has been the insulated concrete form (ICF) grid walls, which are built using prefabricated stay-in-place forms that also provide improved thermal insulation over conventional methods, thereby reducing the energy requirements throughout the life of the building. The structural components of the ICF wall consist of horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete cores. From the engineering point of view and when compared to conventional construction, reduced environmental impact can be realized from lower consumption of traditional materials such as concrete and from lower generation of waste through the near elimination of formwork. The awareness and demographic propensity toward sustainability in urban areas can overlap with areas of significant seismic risk, creating a societal need for implementation despite the lack historical performance. The designers and suppliers are unsure of the path toward approval as this type of construction falls outside the applicability of current building code and limited guidance exist on the steps needed. This paper outlines the development of an experimental program aimed to investigate the seismic performance through full-scale cyclic tests. The preliminary force deformation results from a cyclically loaded ICF grid walls are outlined, where the overall behavior indicated that the system could potentially lead to successful implementation in areas of high seismicity.

17) Blast analysis of integrated framing assemblies at openings in insulated concrete form wall construction (USA, 2012)

Carrie E.Davis, Protection Engineering Consultant, Austin
Kirk A.Marchand, Protection Engineering Consultant, San Antonio

ABSTRACT: Insulating concrete forms (ICF) have become increasingly common in commercial projects. In ICF wall construction, wall sections are built by stacking blocks atop each other prior to pouring concrete. A block consists of two foam panels with a cavity between connected by plastic webbing. ICF wall construction has several advantages over traditional assemblies of CMU and stick-frame walls, including: improved structural performance (demonstrated by wind projectile tests, ICF homes surviving hurricanes, and preliminary blast testing), energy efficiency, and speed of construction. STALA® integrated framing assemblies (IFA) were developed by STALA® Integrated Assemblies, LLC to streamline framing of openings in ICF wall construction. The IFAs act as the opening formwork and reinforcement. Protection Engineering Consultants (PEC) and STALA® performed an analytical study to evaluate IFAs used to frame ICF wall, door and window openings subjected to blast loads. The main goal was to develop design guidance for ICF walls with IFAs for Department of Defense (DoD) loads while meeting the DoD low level of protection (LLOP) response criteria (UFC 04-010-01). PEC developed a non-composite resistance function for each ICF wall and IFA combination for use in single-degree-of- freedom (SDOF) analysis program, specifically SBEDS v4.0. Design tables were constructed for DoD charge weights and standoffs based on the results of the SDOF analyses. The design tables illustrate how IFAs impact ICF wall blast performance as a function of opening width and clear spacing. In general, IFAs improve the performance of the typical ICF wall, such that all cases analyzed meet the DoD LLOP response criteria when subjected to DoD charge weights at conventional construction standoffs. This paper presents a summary of our assumptions, analyses, results, and recommendations for future work.

18) Mechanical model for seismic response assessment of lightly reinforced concrete walls

Emanuele Brunesi, Roberto Nascimbene, Alberto Pavese – EUCENTRE European Centre for Training and Research in Earthwuake Engineering, Pavia

ABSTRACT: The research described in this paper investigates the seismic behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete bearing sandwich panels, heavily conditioned by shear deformation. A numerical model has been prepared, within an open source finite element (FE) platform, to simulate the experimental response of this emerging structural system, whose squat-type geometry affects performance and failure mode.
A calibration of this equivalent mechanical model, consisting of a group of regularly spaced vertical elements
in combination with a layer of nonlinear springs, which represent the cyclic behaviour of concrete and steel,
has been conducted by means of a series of pseudo-static cyclic tests performed on single full-scale
prototypes with or without openings.
Both cantilevered and fixed-end shear walls have been analyzed.

19) Correlations between the experimental results of pseudo-static tests with cyclic horizontal load on concrete/polystyrene sandwich bearing panels and their analytical counterparts

Tomaso Trombetti, Stefano Silvestri, Giada Gasparini, Ilaria Ricci – Department DISTART, University of Bologna, Bologna

ABSTRACT: In recent years, the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete bearing panels structures has been the object of several research works.
This paper presents a summary of the results obtained in a wide experimental/analytical/numerical correlation campaign carried out as a joint effort between the University of Bologna and the EUCENTRE labs in Pavia.
This effort was devoted at the assessment of the seismic performances of structures composed of (lightly reinforced) concrete/polystyrene sandwich bearing panels.
In this paper: (1) the results of a number of pseudo-static tests with cyclic horizontal load have been briefly recalled; (2) extensive analytical developments have been carried out to evaluate the mechanical characteristics and the seismic behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete panels; (3) numerical results have been obtained with advanced analyses on a sophisticated model of the panel; (4) a comparison between the analytical, the numerical and the experimental results has been performed.

20) Design of a shaking table test on a 3-storey building composed of cast-in-situ concrete walls

laria Ricci, Giada Gasparini, Stefano Silvestri, Tomaso Trombetti – Department DICAM, University of Bologna, Bologna
Dora Foti – Department DICA, University of Bari, Bari
Salvador Ivorra-Chorro – University of Alicante, Alicante

ABSTRACT: Structural systems composed of cast in situ sandwich squat concrete walls, which make use of a lightweight material (for example polystyrene) as a support for the concrete, are widely used for construction in non seismic areas or in areas of low seismicity, and appreciated for their limited constructions costs, limited installation times, great constructions flexibility and high energy and acoustic efficiency. However their seismic behaviour has not been fully investigated.
In recent years, an exhaustive experimental campaign, carried out by the University of Bologna and the Eucentre labs in Pavia, was devoted to the assessment of the seismic performances of single walls and of a portion of structure through cyclic tests under horizontal loads.
To validate the theoretically and partially-experimentally anticipated (through cyclic tests under horizontal loads) good seismic behaviour of cellular structures composed of cast in situ squat sandwich concrete walls, shaking table tests were performed, at the laboratory facilities of the Eucentre in Pavia, on a full-scale 3-storey structural system composed of cast-in-situ squat sandwich concrete walls (characterized by 5.50 x 4.10 meters in plan and 8.25 meters in height).

21) In-plane shear behaviour of thin low reinforced concrete panels for earthquake re-construction

Michele Palermo, Tomaso Trombetti – Department DISTART, University of Bologna, Bologna
Luisa Maria M.Gil-Martin, Enrique Hernandez-Montes – University of Granada, Granada

ABSTRACT: Low reinforced thin concrete panels have been used for the re-construction of living buildings in the devastated zone of L’Aquila. A structural characterization of these types of panels is presented in this paper, paying particular attention to the fact that these panels are subjected mainly to shear forces.
Refined compression-field theory (RCFT) has recently been proposed in order to better predict the behaviour of reinforced concrete members subjected to in-plane shear and axial stresses.
This theory is based on continuum mechanics, i.e. satisfying compatibility, equilibrium and formulating the constitutive equations in terms of average (i.e. “smeared”) stresses and strains.
The improvement of RCFT in comparison with the two most famous theories for reinforced concrete member subjected to shear [i.e. the modified compression-field theory (MCFT), and the rotating-angle softened-truss model (RA-STM)], deals with an embedded bar model based on the tension stiffening model in concrete.
The preliminary numerical validations seem very promising. However, additional experimental data are required for calibrating and validating the parameters of the proposed RCFT theory.

22) Preliminary results of a shaking table tests on a 3-storey building realized with cast in place sandwich squat concrete walls

Giada Gasparini, Tomaso Trombetti, Stefano Silvestri, Ilaria Ricci – Department DICAM, University of Bologna, Bologna
Salvador Ivorra Chorro – University of Alicante, Alicante
Dora Foti – University of Bari, Bari

ABSTRACT: Structural systems composed of cast in place sandwich squat concrete walls, which make use of a lightweight material (for example polystyrene) as a support for the concrete, are widely used for construction in non seismic areas or in areas of low seismicity, and appreciated for their limited constructions costs, limited installation times, great constructions flexibility and high energy and acoustic efficiency.
If these cast-in-place squat concrete walls are assembled with appropriate connections, a cellular/box behavior of the structural system is obtained which leads to high strength resources (which allows not to use the post-elastic behavior and the ductility resources) and high torsional stiffness.
In recent years, from an exhaustive experimental campaign it has been possible to obtain the structural performances of single panels composed of cast-in-place sandwich squat concrete walls. A series of shaking table tests have been carried out at the EUCENTRE in Pavia.
The structural specimen which has been tested is a full-scale 3- storey structural system composed of cast-in-place squat sandwich concrete walls, characterized by 5.50 x 4.10 meters in plan and 8.25 meters in height.

23) Seismic behavior of structural systems composed of cast in situ concrete walls

Salvador Ivorra – University of Alicante, Alicante
Tomaso Trombetti – University of Bologna, Bologna
Dora Foti – University of Bari, Bari

ABSTRACT: This research aims at obtaining an experimental evaluation of the seismic response of structural systems composed of cast in situ squat concrete walls. Such structural systems are widely used for construction in non seismic areas and appreciated for their (i) limited constructions costs, (ii) limited installation times, (iii) great constructions flexibility and (iv) high energy and acoustic efficiency.
The study of the seismic behavior of structural systems composed of cast in situ squat concrete walls has been developed only recently and lies mainly in the study of the behaviour of the single squat wall panel under cyclic lateral loading.
In recent years, the seismic behaviour of cast in situ squat concrete walls has been the object of few scientific research works. In particular, most of these works focus on the study of the in-plane behavior of single cast in situ squat concrete wall under increasing horizontal loading cycles. Such researches have shown that cast in situ squat concrete walls have optimum (better than that of frame systems) characteristics both in terms of (i) strength resources towards horizontal loads and (ii) ductility capabilities.The assessment of the seismic behavior and performances of such a structural system (which is intrinsically characterized by superior resistance to horizontal loads, as compared to the more common frame systems) may lead to changes/modifications in the way the common 4-5 storey high buildings (for European countries) are constructed in seismic areas.

24) Shaking table test design to evaluate earthquake capacity of a 3 storey building specimen composed of cast in situ concrete walls

Salvador Ivorra – University of Alicante, Alicante
Dora Foti – University of Bari, Bari
Ilaria Ricci, Giada Gasparini, Stefano Silvestri, Tomaso Trombetti – Department DICAM, University of Bologna, Bologna

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the work developed to design a shaking-table test at the EUCENTRE Lab, for the evaluation of the maximum capacity of a 3-storey building subjected to earthquake loading. The structural system of the building is composed of cast-in-situ sandwich squat reinforced concrete walls using polystyrene as a support for the concrete. The purpose of this test is to verify the dynamic behavior of this structural typology under earthquake acceleration. Previous to the shakeing-table tests carried out at the EUCENTRE Lab, extensive analytical and numerical research was developed on a set of models of the building under seismic input. Also, experimental tests were performed on single r.c. panels subjected to pseudo-static cyclic loading. The structural specimen was a structural system composed of cast-in-situ squat sandwich concrete walls characterized by 5.50 × 4.10 m in plan and 8.25 m in height. The input for the simulation was the Montenegro earthquake of April 1979. The construction of this building was developed outside the laboratory; it was lifted and pulled inside using hydraulic jacks and a roller system.
A bracing system was developed to assure the integrity of the structure during the transportation process.